Study Notes on Communication UGC NET JRF Exam 2015
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Introduction to Communication
The process of communication involves a procedure consisting of only a few steps.
- A communication source or an encoder,
- A message,
- A channel,
- A decoder or a communication receiver or a destination.
- a code
- a channel
- encoder and
FEATURES OF COMMUNICATION
THE ELEMENTS OF COMMUNICATION
TYPES OF COMMUNICATION
INTRA PERSONAL COMMUNICATION
Education is a complex social, cultural and ethical process designed in a social or cultural context. It is very much related with social structures, cultural environments, values and ideals of people, society and the Government. These being dynamic factors because of which the definition of teaching has been changing along with time, place and society.
In brief a proper definition of teaching should-
(i) Identify whether teaching is a process or product
(ii) Clearly indicate its constitutional factors
(iii) Reveal objectives, and
(iv) Say something about its organizational and structural aspect.
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1. According to Morrison, teaching is a disciplined social process in which teacher influences
The behavior of the less experienced pupil and helps him develop according to the needs and
Ideas of the society. Thus teaching is reduced to what teacher teaches.
2. Smith states that teaching is an organized system of specific activities aimed to help the learner
Learn something. Teaching may be carried out in the absence of the teacher. Smith further
Elaborated the definition. He considered teaching as a tripolar process involving-
(i) Agent or source producing learning which may be human or material,
(ii) A goal or target to be achieved, and
(iii) The intervening variables consisting of learning or teaching situation involving human or
Physical conditions and instructional methods.
3. Gage defined teaching as personal relationship between the teacher and the taught causing
4. Amid on considered teaching as a process of interaction between the teacher and the taught as
a cooperative enterprise, a two-way traffic. This definition considered teaching as a set of properly
planned and clearly defined activities undertaken for the achievement of certain objectives.
5. Clarke broadened the scope of teaching and included all those organized activities that may
Result in modifying the behavior of the learner.
The Nature of Teaching
If we consider its nature, teaching is
(a) Dynamic, Social and Humane. Teaching is not a fundamental concept because it is greatly influenced by social and human factors which are dynamic in themselves.
(b) Both, Art and Science. Teaching is both art and science. It calls for exercise of talent and creativity making it an art and involving repertoire of techniques, procedures and skills which can be studied systematically, described and improved making it science.
(c) Diverse in Application. In application, teaching is of diverse nature. It may have various forms as formal, informal, directional, instructional, formal, training, conditioning, indoctrination, talking, showing, doing, remedial etc.
Research word is made up by adding ‘Re’ as a prefix to the word ‘search’. Search is to make known of an existent unknown thing. Therefore, research (search of searched) means to elicit some facts out of a known thing. Research is
- an attitude of inquiry,
- an attempt to elicit facts
- a systematic and scholarly application of the scientific method.
- Essentially a state of mind – a friendly, welcoming attitude towards change
Characteristics of Research
- It is a scientific investigation. Research (research) means to “search again. It connotes patient study and scientific investigation.
- It develops concepts and the theories. One reason for conducting research is to develop and evaluate concepts and the theories.
- It expands the limits of knowledge. Basic or pure research attempts to expand the limits of knowledge. It is conducted to verify the acceptability of a given theory or to know more about a certain concept.
- It cannot be implemented immediately. It does not directly involve the solution to a particular problem; its findings generally cannot be implemented immediately.
- It is essential tool for good decision making. The task of educational research is to make the information used in decision making more accurate.
- Educational research is a managerial tool that provides information essential for good decision making. Research in teaching, training, organizing, or management areas of an institution are within the scope of training research.
- Educational research reduces the risk of making wrong decisions. It is an aid to management judgment, not a substitute of it.
Aims and Objectives of Research
Its main aim is to find out the truth which is hidden and which has not been discovered as yet. Though each research study has its own specific purpose, but research objectives may fall into a number of following broad groupings: ·
- To gain familiarity with a phenomenon or to achieve new insights into it. (Exploratory or formulative research studies)
- To portray accurately the characteristics of a particular individual, situation or a group. (Descriptive research studies)
- To determine the frequency with which something occurs or with which it is associated with something else. (Diagnostic research studies)
- To test a hypothesis of a casual relationship between variables (hypothesis-testing research studies)