An examination for selection of candidates for appointment as UPSC Special Class Apprentices in Mechanical Department of Indian Railways will be held on 20.01.2013
by the Union Public Service Commission in accordance with the Rules published by the Ministry of Railways (Railway Board) in the Gazette of India.


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(I) Nationality
A candidate must be either :—
(a) A citizen of India, or
(b) a subject of Nepal, or
(c) a subject of Bhutan, or
(d) a Tibetan refugee who came over to India before 1st January, 1962 with the intention
of permanently settling in India. or
e) a person of Indian origin who has migrated from Pakistan, Burma, Sri Lanka, East African countries of Kenya, Uganda, The United Republic of Tanzania, Zambia,
Malawi, Zaire, Ethiopia or from Vietnam with the intention of permanently settling
in India. Provided that a candidate belonging to categories (b), (c), (d) and (e) above shall be a person in whose favour a certificate of eligibility has been issued by the Government of India. A candidate in whose case a certificate of eligibility is necessary, may be admitted to the examination but the offer of appointment may be given only after the necessary
eligibility certificate has been issued to him by the Government of India.

(II) Age Limits :
(a) A candidate must have attained the age
of 17 years and must not have attained the
age of 21 years on 1st January, 2012, i.e.
he/she must have been born not earlier
than 2nd January, 1991 and not later than
1st January, 1995.
(b) The upper age limit is relaxable as follows:–
(i) upto a maximum of five years if a candidate belongs to a Scheduled Caste
or a Scheduled Tribe.
(ii) upto a maximum of three years in the case of candidates belonging to
Other Backward Classes who are eligible to avail of reservation applicable
to such candidates. ‘‘The closing date fixed for the receipt of the application will be treated
as the date for determining the OBC status (including that of creamy layer) of
the candidates.’’
(iii) upto a maximum of five years if a candidate had ordinarily been domiciled
in the State of Jammu & Kashmir during the period from the 1st January,
1980 to the 31st day of December, 1989.
(iv) upto a maximum of three years in the case of Defence Services personnel
disabled in operations during hostilities with any foreign country or in a disturbed area and released as a consequence thereof:
(v) upto a maximum of five years in the case of ex-servicemen  including
Commissioned Officers and ECOs/ SSCOs who have rendered at least
five years Military Service as on 1st January, 2012 and have been re-leased (1) on completion of assignment (including those whose assignment is due to be completed within one year from 1st January, 2012) otherwise than by way of dismissal or discharge on account of misconduct or inefficiency, or (2) on account of physical disability attributable to Military Service, or (3) on invalidment.
(vi) Upto a maximum of five years in the case of ECOs / SSCOs who have
completed an initial period of assignment of five years of Military Service
as on 1st January, 2012 and whose assignment has been extended beyond
five years and in whose case the Ministry of Defence issues a certificate
that they can apply for civil employment and that they will be released
on three month’s notice on selection from the date of receipt of
offer of appointment.
vii) Upto a maximum of 10 years in the case of blind, deaf-mute and
Orthopaedically handicapped persons.

(III) Educational Qualifications : For admission to the examination a candidate–
(a) must have passed in the first or second division, the Intermediate or an
equivalent Examination of a University or Board approved by the Government
of India with Mathematics and at least one of the subjects Physics
and Chemistry as subjects of the examination. Graduates with Mathematics and at
least one of the subjects Physics and Chemistry as their degree subjects
may also apply; or
(b) must have passed in the first or second division, the Higher Secondary
(12years) Examination under 10+2 pattern of School Education
with Mathematics and at least one of the subjects Physics and Chemistry
as subjects of the examination; or
(c) must have passed the first year Examination under the three year degree course of a university or the first examination of the three year diploma course in Rural Service of the National Council for Rural Higher Education or the third year Examination for promotion to the 4th year of the four year B.A./B.Sc. (Evening College) Course of the Madras University
with Mathematics and at least one of the subjects Physics and Chemistry as subjects of the examination provided that before joining the degree / diploma course he / she passed.the Higher Secondary Examination or the Pre-University or equivalent examination in the first or second division. Candidates who have passed the first / second year examination under the three-years degree course in the first or second division with Mathematics and either Physics or Chemistry as subjects of the Examination may
also apply; provided the first / second year examination is conducted by a University; or
must have passed in the first or second division the Pre-Engineering Examination
of a University, approved by the Government of India; or must have passed in the first or second division the Pre-Professional / Pre-Technological Examination of any Indian University or a recognised Board, with Mathematics and at least, one of the subjects Physics and Chemistry as subjects of the examination conducted one year after the
Higher Secondary or Pre-University stage; or must have passed the first year examination
under the five year Engineering Degree Course of a University : Provided that before joining the Degree Course, he/she passed the Higher Secondary Examination or pre-University or equivalent Examination in the first or second division. Candidates who have passed the first year Examination of the five-year Engineering Degree Course in the first or second division may also apply provided the first year Examination is
conducted by a University; or (g) must have passed in the first or second
division the Pre-Degree Examination of the Universities of Kerala and
Calicut with Mathematics and at least one of the subjects Physics and
Chemistry as subjects of the Examination.


Section – I
The Examination shall be conducted according to the following plan.
Part I Written Examination carrying a maximum of 600 marks in the subjects as shown
Part II Personality Test carrying a maximum of 200 marks in respect of only those
candidates who are declared qualified on the results of Written Examination.
The subjects of the Written Examination under Part I, the time allowed and the
maximum marks allotted to each subject/paper shall be as follows :

3. The papers in all the subjects will consist of Objective (multiple choice answer) Type questions only. The Question Papers (Test Booklets) will be set in English only.
4. In the question papers, wherever required, SI units will be used.
5. Question Papers will be approximately of the Intermediate standard.
6. Candidates must write the answers in their own hand. In no circumstances, will they
be allowed the help of a scribe to write the answers for them. Blind candidates will,
however, be allowed to write the examination with the help of a scribe.
7. An extra time of 20 minutes for each paper will be permitted to the blind candidates
for papers (Objective type) of duration two hours each.
8. The Commission have discretion to fix qualifying marks in any or all the subjects of
the examination.
9. Candidates are not permitted to use calculators for answering objective type papers
(Test Booklets). They should not, therefore, bring the same inside the Examination Hall.

Section – II
The questions will be designed to test the candidates’ understanding and command of
the language.
The questions will be designed to test a candidate’s general awareness of the environment around him/her and its application to society. The standard of answers to questions should be as expected of students of standard 12 or equivalent.
Man and his environment—
Evolution of life, plants and animals, heredity and environment-Genetics, cells, chromosomes, genes. Knowledge of the human body-nutrition, balanced diet, substitute foods, public health and sanitation including control of epidemics and common diseases. Environmental pollution and its control. Food adulteration, proper storage and preservation of food grains and finished products, population explosion, population control. Production of food and raw materials. Breeding of animals and plants, artificial insemination, manures
and fertilizers, crop protection measures, high yielding varieties and green revolution,
main cereal and cash crops of India. Solar system and the earth. Seasons, Climate, Weather, Soil—its formation, erosion. Forests and their uses. Natural calamities cyclones, floods, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions. Mountains and rivers and their role in irrigation in India. Distribution of natural resources and industries in India. Exploration of underground minerals including Oil Conservation of natural resources with particular reference to the flora and fauna of India.
History, Politics and Society in India—
Vedic, Mahavir, Budhdha, Mauryan, Sunga, Andhra, Kushan. Gupta ages (Mauryan
Pillars, Stupa Caves, Sanchi, Mathura and Gandharva Schools, Temple architecture,
Ajanta and Ellora). The rise of new social forces with the coming of Islam and establishment of broader contacts. Transition from feudalism to capitalism. Opening of European contacts. Establishment of British rule in India. Rise of nationalism and national struggle for freedom culminating in Independence.
Constitution of India and its characteristic features—Democracy, Secularism, Socialism, equality of opportunity and Parliamentary form of Government. Major political ideologies—Democracy, Socialism, Communism and Gandhian idea of non-violence. Indian political parties, pressure groups, public opinion and the Press, electoral system.
India’s foreign policy and non-alignment-Arms race, balance of power. World organization — political, social, economic and cultural. Important events (including sports and cultural activities) in India and abroad during the past two years. Broad features of Indian social system — The caste system, hierarchy — recent changes and trends. Minority social institution — marriage, family, religion and acculturation. Division of labour, co-operation, conflict and competition, Social control — reward and punishment, art, law, customs, propaganda, public opinion, agencies of social control — family, religion, State educational institutions; factors of social change — economic, technological, demographic, cultural; the concept of revolution. Social disorganization in India — Casteism, communalism, corruption in public life, youth unrest, beggary, drugs, delinquency and crime, poverty and unemployment. Social planning and welfare in India, community development and labour welfare; welfare of Scheduled Castes and Backward Classes. Money — Taxation, price, demographic trends, national income, economic growth. Private and Public Sectors; economic and non-economic factors in planning, balanced versus imbalanced growth, agricultural versus industrial development; inflation and price stabilization, problem of resource mobilization. India’s Five Year Plans.

(iii) Psychological Test
The questions will be designed to assess the basic intelligence and mechanical apti-
tude of the candidate.
Length measurements using vernier, screw gauge, spherometer and optical lever.
Measurement of time and mass. Straight line motion and relationships among displacement, velocity and acceleration. Newton’s Laws of Motion, Momentum, impulse, work, energy and power. Coefficient of friction. Equilibrium of bodies under action of forces. Moment of a force, couple. Newton’s Law of Gravitation. Escape velocity. Acceleration due to gravity. Mass and Weight; Center of gravity, Uniform circular motion, centripetal force, simple Harmonic motion. Simple pendulum. Pressure in a fluid and its variation with depth. Pascal’s Law. Principle of Archimedes. Floating bodies, Atmospheric pressure and its measurement. Temperature and its measurement. Thermal expansion, Gas laws and absolute temperature. Specific heat, latent heats and their measurement. Specific heat of gases. Mechanical equivalent of heat. Internal energy and First law of thermodynamics, Isothermal and adiabatic changes. Transmission of heat; thermal conductivity. Wave motion; Longitudinal and transverse waves. Progressive and stationary waves, Velocity of sound in gas and its dependence on various factors. Resonance phenomena (air columns and strings). Reflection and refraction of light. Image formation by curved mirrors and lenses, Microscopes and telescopes. Defects of vision.
Prisms, deviation and dispersion, Minimum deviation. Visible spectrum. Field due to a bar magnet, Magnetic moment, Elements of Earth’s magnetic field. Magnetometers. Dia, para and ferromagnetism.Electric charge, electric field and potential, Coulomb’s Law. Electric current; electric cells, e.m.f. resistance, ammeters and voltmeters. Ohm’s law;
resistances in series and parallel, specific resistance and conductivity. Heating effect of
current. Wheatstone’s bridge, Potentiometer. Magnetic effect of current; straight wire, coil and solenoid electromagnet; electric bell. Force on a current-carrying conductor in magnetic field; moving coil galvanometers; conversion to ammeter or voltmeter.
Chemical effects of current; Primary and storage cells and their functioning, Laws of
electrolysis. Electromagnetic induction; Simple A.C. and D.C. generators. Transformers, Induction coil, Cathode rays, discovery of the electron, Bohr model of the atom. Diode and its use as a rectifier. Production, properties and uses of X-rays. Radioactivity; Alpha, Beta and Gamma rays. Nuclear energy; fission and fusion, conversion of mass into energy, chain reaction.

Physical Chemistry
1. Atomic structure; Earlier models in brief. Atom as at three dimensional model. Orbital
concept. Quantum numbers and their significance, only elementary treatment.
Pauli’s Exclusion Principle. Electronic configuration. Aufbau Principle, s.p.d. and f. block
elements. Periodic classification only long form. Periodicity and electronic configuration. Atomic radii, Electro-negativity in period and groups.
2. Chemical Bonding, electro-valent, co-valent, coordinate covalent bonds. Bond Prop-
erties, sigma and Pie bonds, Shapes of simple molecules like water, hydrogen sulphide,
methane and ammonium chloride. Molecular association and hydrogen bonding.
3. Energy changes in a chemical reaction. Exothermic and Endothermic Reactions.
Application of First Law of Thermodynamics, Hess’s Law of constant heat summation.
4. Chemical Equilibria and rates of reactions. Law of Mass action. Effect of Pressure,
Temperature and concentration on the rates of reaction. (Qualitative treatment based
on Le Chatelier’s Principle). Molecularity; First and Second order reaction. Concept of
Energy of activation. Application to manufacture of Ammonia and Sulphur trioxide.
5. Solutions : True solutions, colloidal solutions and suspensions. Colligative properties
of dillute solutions and determination of Molecular weights of dissolved substances.
Elevation of boiling points. Depressions of freezing point, osmotic pressure. Raoult’s
Law (non-thermodynamic treatment only).
6. Electro-Chemistry : Solution of Electrolytes, Faraday’s Laws of Electrolysis, ionic
equilibria, Solubility product. Strong and weak electrolytes. Acids and Bases (Lewis and Bronstead concept). pH and Buffer solutions.7. Oxidation — Reduction; Modern, electronics concept and oxidation number.
8. Natural and Artificial Radioactivity: Nuclear Fission and Fusion. Uses of Radioactive
Inorganic Chemistry
Brief Treatment of Elements and their industrially important compounds :
1. Hydrogen : Position in the periodic table. Isotopes of hydrogen. Electronegative and
electropositive character. Water, hard and soft water, use of water in industries, Heavy
water and its uses.
2. Group I Elements : Manufacture of sodium hydroxide, sodium carbonate, sodium
bicarbonate and sodium chloride.
3. Group II Elements : Quick and slaked lime. Gypsum, Plaster of Paris. Magnesium
sulphate and Magnesia.
4. Group III Elements: Borax, Alumina and Alum.
5. Group IV Elements : Coals, Coke and solid Fuels, Silicates, Zolitis semi-conductors.
Glass (Elementary treatment).
6. Group V Elements. Manufacture of ammonia and nitric acid. Rock Phosphates and
safety matches.
7. Group VI Elements. Hydrogen peroxide, allotropy of sulphur, sulphuric acid. Oxides
of sulphur.
8. Group VII Elements. Manufacture and uses of Fluorine, Chlorine, Bromine and Io-
dine, Hydrochloric acid. Bleaching powder.
9. Group O. (Noble gases) Helium and its uses.
10. Metallurgical Processes : General Methods of extraction of metals with specific
reference to copper, iron, aluminium, silver, gold, zinc and lead. Common alloys of
these metals; Nickel and manganese steels.
Organic Chemistry
1. Tetrahedral nature of carbon, Hybridisation and sigma pie bonds and their relative
strength. Single and multiple bonds. Shapes of molecules. Geometrical and optical
2. General methods of preparation, properties and reaction of alkanes, alkenes and
alkynes, Petroleum and its refining. Its uses as fuel.
Aromatic hydrocarbons : Resonance and aromaticity. Benzene and Naphthalene and
their analogues. Aromatic substitution reactions.
3. Halogen derivatives : Chloroform, Carbon Tetrachloride, Chlorobenzene, D.D.T. and
4. Hydroxy Compounds : Preparation, properties and uses of Primary, Secondary and
Tertiary alcohols, Methanol, Ethanol, Glycerol and Phenol, Substitution reaction at aliphatic
carbon atom.
5. Ethers; Diethyl ether.
6. Aldehydes and ketones : Formaldehyde, Acetaldehyde, Benzaldehyde, acetone,
7. Nitro compounds amines: Nitrobenzene TNT, Anlline, Diazonium Compounds,
8. Carboxylic acid : Formic, acetic, denezoic and salicylic acids, acetyl salicylic acid.
9. Esters : Ethylacerate, Methyl salicylates, ethylbenzoate.
10. Polymers : Polythene, Teflon, Perpex, Artificial Rubber, Nylon and Polyester fibers.
11. Nonstructural treatment of Carbohydrates, Fats and Lipids, amino acids and pro-
teins – Vitamins and hormones.

1. Algebra :
Concept of a set, Union and Intersection of sets, Complement of a set, Null set, Universal set and Power set, Venn diagrams and simple applications. Cartesian product of
two sets, relation and mapping — examples, Binary operation on a set — examples.
Representation of real numbers on a line. Complex numbers: Modulus, Argument,
Algebraic operations on complex numbers. Cube roots of unity. Binary system of numbers, Conversion of a decimal number to a binary number and vice-versa. Arithmetic,
Geometric and Harmonic progressions. Summation of series involving A.P., G.P., and
H.P. Quadratic equations with real co-efficients. Quadratic expressions: extreme values.
Permutation and Combination, Binomial theorem and its applications.Matrices and Determinants: Types of matrices, equality, matrix addition and scalar multiplication
- properties. Matrix multiplication — non-commutative and distributive property
over addition. Transpose of a matrix, Determinant of a matrix. Minors and Cofactors.
Properties of determinants. Singular and non-singular matrices. Adjoint and Inverse
of a square-matrix, Solution of a system of linear equations in two and three
variables-elimination method, Cramers rule and Matrix inversion method (Matrices with
m rows and n columns where m, n < to 3 are to be considered).
Idea of a Group, Order of a Group, Abelian Group. Identity and inverse elements Illustration
by simple examples.
2. Trigonometry :
Addition and subtraction formulae, multiple and sub-multiple angles. Product and factoring formulae. Inverse trigonometric functions — Domains, Ranges and Graphs.
DeMoivre’s theorem, expansion of Sin n0 and Cos n0 in a series of multiples of Sines
and Cosines. Solution of simple trigonometric equations. Applications: Heights and
3. Analytic Geometry (two dimensions):
Rectangular Cartesian. Coordinate system, distance between two points, equation of a
straight line in various forms, angle between two lines, distance of a point from a line.
Transformation of axes. Pair of straight lines, general equation of second degree in x
and y — condition to represent a pair of straight lines, point of intersection, angle between
two lines. Equation of a circle in standard and in general form, equations of
tangent and normal at a point, orthogonality of two cricles. Standard equations of parabola,
ellipse and hyperbola — parametric equations,  equations of tangent and normal
at a point in both Cartesian and parametric forms.
4. Differential Calculus: Concept of a real valued function — domain, range and graph. Composite functions, one to one, onto and inverse functions, algebra of real functions, examples of polynomial, rational, trigonometric, exponential and logarithmic functions.  Notion of limit, Standard limits – examples.  Continuity of functions – examples, algebraic operations on continuous functions. Derivative of a function at a point, geometrical and physical interpretation of a derivative – applications. Derivative of sum, product and quotient of functions, derivative of a function with respect to another function, derivative of a composite function, chain rule. Second order derivatives. Rolle’s theorem (statement only), increasing and decreasing functions. Application of derivatives in problems of maxima, minima, greatest and least values of a function.
5. Integral Calculus and Differential equations : Integral Calculus : Integration as inverse of differential, integration by substitution and by parts, standard integrals involving algebraic expression, trigonometric, exponential and hyperbolic functions. Evaluation of definite integrals-determination of areas of plane regions bounded by curves – applications.
Differential equations : Definition of order and degree of a differential equation, formation
of a differential equation by examples. General and particular solution of a differential
equation, solution of first order and first degree differential equation of various types -
examples. Solution of second order homogeneous differential equation with constant
6. Vectors and its applications : Magnitude and direction of a vector, equal vectors, unit vector, zero vector, vectors in two and three dimensions, position vector. Multiplication of a vector by a scalar, sum and difference of two vectors, Parallelogram law and triangle law of addition. Multiplication of vectors — scalar product or dot product of two vectors, perpendicularity, commutative and distributive properties. Vector product or cross product of two vectors. Scalar and vector triple products. Equations of a line, plane and sphere in vector form – simple problems. Area of a triangle, parallelogram and problems of plane geometry and trigonometry using vector methods. Work done by a force and moment of a force.
7. Statistics and probability :Statistics : Frequency distribution, cumulative frequency distribution – examples. Graphical representation – Histogram, frequency polygon – examples. Measure of central tendency – mean, median and mode. Variance and standard deviation – determination and comparison. Correlation and regression.Probability
: Random experiment, outcomes and associated sample space, events, mutually exclusive and exhaustive events, impossible and certain events. Union and Intersection of events. Complementary, elementary and composite events. Definition of probability
: classical and statistical – examples. Elementary theorems on probability simple
problems. Conditional probability, Bayes’ theorem – simple problems. Random
variable as function on a sample space. Binomial distribution, examples of random
experiments giving rise to Binomial distribution.

Personality Test
Each candidate will be interviewed by a Board who will have before them a record of his
career both academic and extramural. They will be asked questions on matters of general
interest. Special attention will be paid to assessing their potential qualities of leadership,
initiative and intellectual curiosity, tact and other social qualities, mental and physical
energy, power of practical application and integrity of character.